Saturday, November 30, 2019

Kanzi a bonobo ape Essay Example

Kanzi a bonobo ape Essay Worlds are the lone species that has evolved an advanced system of communicating between persons. Whereas other species communicate through ritualized and repetitive vocals, calls, or gestures, worlds have developed lingual systems that can show a literally infinite assortment of separate and distinguishable ideas both vocally every bit good as written. This unbelievable evolutionary spring is what distinguished worlds from all other beings on Earth. But it ca nt, nevertheless, go unmentioned the unbelievable communicating systems animate beings, more specifically Primatess have created. Animals are among us in many forms and sizes, with many different communicative abilities. Whether it is calls, oinks, gestures or copulating calls, these communicating tools are merely understood by members of the same species ; we can analyse these communicating tools through lingual ethology, as mentioned in talks by utilizing a comparative attack is good because it sets a criterion by which commu nicating systems can be evaluated. Throughout this class of survey, the construct of linguistic communication as the separation between animate beings and worlds has prevailed. We as worlds can both bring forth and grok communicating through linguistic communication, where the inquiry arises on how well animate beings can make this. Further, as we have seen in readings and other beginnings, many claim that it is done linguistic communication that our consciousness and cognitive accomplishments are developed. While most consider animate beings to be animals of wont, I plan to take a different mentality on this ; that is to see how pygmy chimpanzee, more specifically Kanzi, a pygmy chimpanzee ape acquired lingual competence.Kanzi was a pygmy chimpanzee who did this after attach toing hisfemale parentto Sessionss where she was taught linguistic communication through keyboardlexigrams, but showed small involvement in the lessons. It was a great surprise to research workers so when o ne twenty-four hours, while Matata was off, Kanzi began aptly utilizing the lexigrams, going non merely the first ascertained ape to hold learned facets of linguistic communication naturalistically instead than through direct preparation, but besides the first observed pygmy chimpanzee to look to utilize some elements of linguistic communication at all.With all that set in head, I plan to farther look into the claims about Kanzi s lingual abilities from a research position and distinguish between Kanzi s Language production and comprehension public presentation. By looking at factors such as environment, behavior and attitude, I hope to convey together all of my research, ideas and critical reappraisals on great ape linguistic communication. We will write a custom essay sample on Kanzi a bonobo ape specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Kanzi a bonobo ape specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Kanzi a bonobo ape specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Language is a manner for worlds to pass on and bring forth ideas, emotions and reactions to merely about everything in day-to-day modus operandis. However, while linguistic communication is an plus which enables people to gestate their universe, it is by no means a necessity. This is demonstrated by the ability of physically handicapped individuals ( e.g. , the deaf ) and mentally disabled individuals ( e.g. , victims of intellectual paralysis ) to pass on utilizing symbols. Symbols are a alone tool, a manner for non merely handicapped individuals to use but besides other species, such as Primatess. Lexigrams which are â€Å"arbitrary symbols that represent a word are used with Researchers and pygmy chimpanzees to pass on with three computer-monitored lexigrams panels incorporating 384 symbols and words. Similar keyboards have helped kids and grownups with linguistic communication deficits† ( SOURCE ) .Though the symbols are non ocular representations of the existent word bein g used, it is still a manner of exemplifying comprehension between worlds and pygmy chimpanzees that are able to get lingual competence. Kanzi developed this acquisition really early in his old ages merely by exposure to the lexigrams system. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Kanzi s trainer beganby distinguishing linguistic communication production from comprehension, underscoring that the important precursor of linguistic communication competency is the apprehension of non spoken referential symbols. She focused on the significance that the apes derived from words instead than how they produced them. Savage-Rumbaugh saw comprehension as the path into linguistic communication ( Johnson, 1995 ) since it is simpler to interpret an thought in one s head into a grammatical sequence of words than to decrypt a sentence spoken by another, whose purposes are unknown.With respects to Kanzi, this lead to a displacement off from intensive preparation Sessionss to an attack in which Kanzi was treated as a underdeveloped human baby ( Johnson, 1995 ) . The findings of this undertaking, in which Kanzi learnt to appreciate word order and other syntactical cues, led Savage-Rumbaugh to reason that pygmy chimpanzee possess fundamental syntactical ability. ( Johnson, 1995 ) This evident success of research with Kanzi was attributed to her exposure to linguistic communication early in her life and tutoring instigated by the animate being s wonder ( Johnson, 1995 ) . Critics responded that animate beings tie ining vocal sounds with objects was far from radical ( Johnson, 1995 ) . However Savage-Rumbaugh argued that tests with words in fresh contexts ( Johnson, 1995 ) revealed that the Pan troglodytess responses were non automatic. Savage-Rumbaugh reported that her Pan troglodytess demonstrate the fundamental comprehension accomplishments of two and a half twelvemonth old kids, understanding complex sentences and spontaneously utilizing symbolic linguistic communication in their communicating. However for many linguists, the trademark of linguistic communication is non comprehension but public presentation, the ability to bring forth progressively complex sentences within the confines of grammar ( Johnson, 1995 ) . The position that mental experiences are non comparably shared between worlds and nonhuman Primatess is prevailing among linguists ( Mitani, 1995 ) and has been enforced by Noam Chomsky s statements that witting idea is merely made possible by the innate mechanism to decrypt the syntactical construction of linguistic communication ( Mitani, 1995 ) . He adheres to the position that the grammar, present in all linguistic communications, has its beginnings in the nervous connexions, alone to human encephalons. Chimp raised from birth in an environment where spoken words and the linguistic communication board ( arbitrary symbols to which one can indicate to convey an object or action ) were spontaneously used to pass on with him

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Deterrence of Death Penalty essays

Deterrence of Death Penalty essays The death penalty has been used for centuries as a form of retributive justice for felonies committed by criminals. The code of Hammurabi, written approximately 3,700 years ago, stated that if a man destroys another mans eye, the offenders eye should be taken out; if a son strikes his father, the son shall have his hand cut off.(246) Early legal codes tried to provide justice by matching the punishment with the offense. This approach was also evident in numerous places within the Old Testament. For example, in the Book of Deuteronomy we read, Life shall go for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.(8:12) However, even with these early philosophies of justice, punishment was not merely meant to serve as revenge for the victims and their relatives. Instead, punishment was intended to make life and property more secure by reducing the likelihood of a person committing a crime or a second offence. This aspect of social control is called deterrence: the use of punishment to deter people from deviance. As Plato expounded 2,300 years ago, Punishment brings wisdom; it is the healing act of wickedness.(199) This occurs, Plato explained, because the point of punishment is not to retaliate for a past wrong but rather to make sure that the man who is punished, and he who sees him punished, may be deterred from doing wrong again. (199) As human societies evolved into complex states, governments increasingly sought to deter crime; hence punishments became increasingly severe as crimes continued to occur. Capital punishment became common during the eighteenth century in England where more then two hundred different crimes carried the death penalty. In addition, executions were typically conducted in public places in an effort to deter those who witnessed the punishment from committing similar acts. Soon after the implementation of the death penalty into Eng...

Friday, November 22, 2019

Cargills Quality

It is a public listed subsidiary company under Cargills Quality foods which is fully owned subsidiary of Cargills PLC since 2010. Kotmale is a leading brand in the dairy sector in Sri Lanka. Under the â€Å"Kotmale† brand milk packets, chees, curd, yogurt and milk powder are produced. Kotmale Holdings PLC is named as Cargills Quality Dairies (Pvt) Ltd since 2010. In this report, Cargills Food City Retail Supply Chain is discussed by considering the product brand Kotmale Milk Packets. ? Retail Supply chain Above figure shows the retail supply chain of Cargills Food City regarding product â€Å"Kotmale UHT milk packets†. Stakeholders of this retail supply chain Milk Farmers who live in Upper country Sri Lanka Flavors suppliers Packaging supplier – Tetra Pak, Colombo Cargills Quality Dairies(Pvt)Ltd Cargills warehouse Cargills Food City Marketing and distribution operator – Millers Customers Final Consumer Milk Farmers When consider about this retail supply chain, milk farmers are the 2ndtier supplier. Mostly Cargills buy fresh milks from upper country milk farmers. This retail supply chain has about 15000 small scale milk farmers. For the better link with these milk farmers, Cargills has introduced HNB farmer insurance schemes free of charge. Cargills directly connect with these suppliers without having intermediaries. It is an advantage of this retail supply chain. Tetra Pak Another 1sttier supplier is Tetra Pak branch which is situated in Colombo. Tetra Pak is a multinational food packaging company. Cargills Quality Dairies The second tier supplier of the retail supply chain is Cargills Quality Dairies (Pvt) Ltd. It is the manufacturing and processing plant of Kotmale UHT milk packets. In this report we consider about manufacturing plant which is situated in upper Kotmale. Cargills Warehouse Cargills warehouse is the distribution center. It keeps the stock of milk packets and distributes one delivery per one week per each retail outlets. This is the largest warehouse in Sri Lanka. It handles over 50000 items. Cargills Food City The retailer of this retail supply chain is Cargills Food City. It is the most valuable retail brand in Sri Lanka. The largest retail chain consist the Cargills food cities all over the country. It has the motto â€Å"On your way home†. Mostly Cargills Food City focuses everyday busy customers. Cargills food city outlets have the mass customization strategy. There are around 232 outlets which a spreader in 23 districts. Millers The distribution and marketing operator of this retail supply chain is Millers. It is also a subsidiary company of Cargills Ceylon. â€Å"Millers† is the national distributor for all the Cargills manufactured and branded products. â€Å"Millers† links the raw material suppliers with manufacturing plant, manufacturing plant with warehouse and warehouse with Cargills food city outlets. †Millers† makes the Cargills retail supply chain unique by being the one and only distributor. Customer Customer may or may not be the final consumer. He is the person who purchases the product from retailer. In this supply chain, father who buys the Kotmale milk packet will be the customer. Retailer also is a customer of Cargills warehouse. Cargills warehouse is a customer of Cargills Quality Diaries and that manufacturing plant is a supplier of raw material suppliers. Customer buys these milk packets because of the influence of final consumer. Final Consumer Final consumer is the person who uses the products. In this supply chain, a small kid who drinks that milk packet will be the final consumer. ? Key Performance Measures Key Performance Indicators measures the organizational performance which is most critical for the success of the business. They should measure frequently. KPIs significantly affect the behavior of an organization. And also KPIs show the capabilities of managers, staff and the individuals. Let’s consider following framework to analyze the key performance of Cargills Food City retail supply chain. Business Strategy Supply chain strategy Supply chain objectives Operational Metrics Customer service Metrics Financial Metrics Current, Cargills use a competitive strategy of business strategy alignment in supply chain. It has aligned the supply chain strategy to the core business strategy. And Cargills has a strategy of lower retail price for customers. â€Å"On your way home† is the slogan of Cargills food city for everyday customers who live busy lives. Cargills Food city has a unique backward integration with suppliers. Operational metrics In operational metrics Cargills Food city, measures the internal performance of the supply chain and the business. Operational metrics are derived from processes, decisions and actions taken internally to meet or exceed the customer expectations. The goals of Cargills to measure operational metrics are waste reduction, inventory management, evaluate supplier performance, unit cost reduction and time compression. Interface: Cargills Food City Cargills has a Made to Stock order fulfillment strategy regarding Kotmale UHT milk packets. Cargiils food city keep a finished products inventory of Kotmale milk packets. So, it is vital to measure following key performance indicators under operational metrics. Invrntory turn over= (Cost of goods sold)/(Inventory investments) Inventory Holding days= 365/(Inventory turnover) Cargills food city has about 9. 125 inventory turnover value and the Inventory holding days is about 40 days. Interface: Cargills Warehouse/Cargills Food city interface Key performance indicator of this interface is stock holding day. Minimum stock holding days of Cargills warehouse is 15days. Interface: Suppliers Cargills retail supply chain regarding Kotmale has vertical integrated supply chain. Further it is a backward integration. In supplier interface, Cargills measures daily volume of collected milks from milk farmers in upper country. Present daily milk collection is about 60000-70000 liters. And also under waste reduction, Cargills measure KPIs regarding water consumption and energy consumption of manufacturing plant, Cargills Quality Dairies (pvt) Ltd. It measures in terms of cost per kilo. Interface: Distributor Rather than having third party distributor, Cargills retail supply chain has own distributor, Millers. In this interface, Cargills measure the delivery time of products and the transportation cost as key performance measures. Customer service metrics Customer service metrics are indications of a company’s ability to satisfy the needs of customers by meeting customer needs on timely basis and creating exceptional value to the customers. The ultimate output of this sector is satisfied customer. Through this performance measures, Cargills ensures about customer satisfaction, response time and delivery performance whether that the right product is available at right time in right place to the right customer. Cargills retail supply chain measures case fill rate, customer profitability, delivery time for customer and average response time. Interface: Cargills food city and manufacturing plant/customer interface In these interfaces, case fill rate is measured as a key performance indicator. Case fill rate=((No of cases customer received)/(No of cases in the customer order))*100 When consider about the responsive time, Cargills Food city has higher responsiveness. Another key performance indicator of Cargills Food city is time period of handling customer complaints. They handle those complaints within minimum time periods. They have a customer relation officer to handle those complaints within the premises. Cargills Food City measures four specific key performance measurements. They are customer retention, average purchase value, sales per square foot and sales increment. Customer retention rate gives the idea about customer loyalty towards the Cargills food city regarding product Kotmale Milk packet. And also it is a good indicator to evaluate the customer service level of the retail outlets. Customer Retention Rate=(((No of customers at the end of the period)-(No of new customers within that period))/((No of customers at the start of the period) ))*100 Besides customer retention rate, Cargills use Customer satisfaction metric to identify the customer perception towards the company. According to customer satisfaction rate, Cargills can decide whether the customers spread the good name or the bad name of the company. According to survey done by Cargills at the point of purchases, they have identified that a customer share the positive experience within Cargill outlets with another 2 or 3 people. But the negative experience is shared with the 8 to 10 people. So it is very important to measure this key performance indicator. The average purchase amount measures the value that gets per purchase order. Average purchase amount= (Total Revenue in a given period)/((No of purchase orders in that period)) Interface: Distribution- Millers When consider about product Kotmale UHT milk packets, Cargills supply chain has customers all over the country. They have divided country into regions and assign a day to deliver products. They have a schedule for it. That schedule goes with a route plan. In this interface Cargills’ key performance indicator is â€Å"Adherence to the route plan†. Millers do one delivery per one week per one branch with full loaded truck. Financial Metrics Financial metrics indicate whether the company’s strategy, implementation and execution are creating value for the shareholder by contributing bottom line improvements. Cargills measures the economic value as a key performance indicator. It describes about generation of wealth and the distribution within stakeholders. The direct economic value generated by Cargills group in 2013 is Rs. 10. 3 Bn. Besides that Cargills measure the return on assets, return on equity and profit margins to measure profitability of the business and the wealth generated from assets. Return On Assets=(Profit/(Total Assets))*100 Return On Equity=(Profit/(Shareholders equity))*100 Cargills measure PE ratio to identify the share value. PE Ratio= price/Earnings This PE ratio gives an image about the company portion towards the share. Higher PE ratio attracts more and more investors to the Cargills retail supply chain. Current PE ratio of the Cargills is about 50. SWOT Analysis and Recommendations SWOT analysis The competitive strategy of Cargills is business strategy alignment. Strengths Vertical integrated supply chain. The stakeholders of this supply chain, Cargills quality dairies (pvt) Ltd, Cargills warehouse and Cargills Food city are owned by one owner. That is Cargills Ceylon PLC. So it integrates supply chain partners properly. And also it reduces the transaction costs and uncertainty of the supply chain. Because of this vertical integrated supply chain, Cargills can keep a strong position in the market against international market partners. Low retail price for Kotmale UHT milk packets and high volume of sales. Cargills Food City’s slogan is â€Å"On your way home†. It mostly focuses the busy everyday consuming customers. Cargills Food city is the ease of one stop shop that gives the shopper convenience of purchasing groceries. So, customers attract to these retail outlets and buy more. Only one distributor along the whole retail supply chain. Cargills retail supply chain has only one distributor, Millers. So, the transportation cost is low. Has the largest retail outlets chain Most valuable retail brand in Sri Lanka This attracts more and more customers to the retail outlets. And Kotmale milk packet’s brand name also is more popular. Clear direction and coordination of top management It is strength of having a good coordination within supply chain. Coordination in collaborative manner improves the performance of supply chain. High technical advanced communication system Cargills has the largest IPVPN wide area network in Sri Lanka. It consist hundreds of router and network links. Through this communication tunnels, Cargills provide lot of value added services to the customers. Belongs the largest warehouse in the Sri Lanka Strong relationship with suppliers Direct link to milk farmers and rural areas Direct link with milk farmers improve the trust within suppliers and manufacturing plant. This trust is vital for long term success of the supply chain. Foe get quality raw milk, the trust is important. Long successful history Cargills retail supply chain has a long history. With an experience, they can clearly identify the obstacles in the supply chain and take action for them. Weaknesses Poor leadership in store level and operation level Storage issues at outlets, Cargills food cities Delay of payments for small scale milk suppliers Inadequate maintenance response time Manpower shortage Opportunities Capability of expanding supermarket chain After the war, market opportunities have been increased. Every successful business tends to start a business branch in Northern part of the country. So as a leading retail company, Cargills has a huge opportunity to start retail out lets and milk manufacturing plants in those areas. High demand for UHT milk packets. Rapid development in the supporting infrastructure and information technology in the world. Today the technology regarding supply chain increases without stopping. Adopting those technologies without delaying will be a competitive strategy for the retail supply chain. Adding more and more value added services Developing closer rural network and emerging markets to rural areas. Now the rural areas are also developing with high accessibility towards the market. There are better road network too. So, starting retail out lets in those areas will improve the quality of life of people and also will increase the market share. Highways. The development of road network reduces the transportation cost and travel time. Higher increase of population. The current trend of people is consuming products like Kotmale milk packets. Increase of population leads to increase of demand for these kinds of products. It is an opportunity for Cargills retail supply chain. Threats Force of competitors like keels super and Lak Sathosa. Keels super compete with Cargills Food city in terms of quality, price and customization. And also Lak Sathosa provides products at low prices. It attracts middle class and poor people highly because they concern about price rather than quality. Highly increasing inflation rate Pressure of international markets Recommendations for the improvement of supply chain The ultimate goal of any supply chain is satisfied customer. So it is important to keep existing customers while attracting new customers. When consider about profit, 80% of profits comes from the existing customers. So, Cargills should take action to retain the existing customers. For that except for having gift cards and senior citizens card systems, customer loyalty card system is highly recommended. Now, there is an increase of customer complaints towards the Cargills Food city. To handle those customer complaints efficiently and effectively, a better customer relationship management system is recommended. Cargills retail supply chain has the largest warehouse in the Sri Lanka. To improve the performance of this warehouse, RFID tracking system will be very useful. For better replenishment process, a good vendor management system is vital. For better coordination in collaborative manner within the retail supply chain of Cargills regarding Kotmale milk packets, starting a call center is vital. If Cargills can expand this retail supply chain out of the country, new markets can be achieved. Online shopping system which gives real time information will be a great an opportunity increase the market share. Today, customers’ lives are complex. They have busy schedules. So they like to do online shopping mostly. Rather than having supplier centered supply chain, it is good to have customer centered supply chain. Although it has a huge inventory in Cargills warehouse, it is a cost for the supply chain. It does not gain any revenue. So if the supply chain makes more visible to the supply chain partners, it will reduce the bullwhip effect while reducing inventory cost.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Coney Island Hospital Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Coney Island Hospital - Essay Example Coney Island Hospital prides itself in its ability to take an active role in building a healthier Southern Brooklyn. In so doing, the hospital makes a cognizant effort to reach out the ethnically diverse community it is an integral part of. This is done through the utility of innovative approaches. The Community Wellness 2000 initiative represents one of the many community-based coalitions utilizing a proactive healthcare method. In so doing, it imparts a strong philosophy of health maintenance and sickness prevention as a means of improving the health and well-being of the individuals within the community of Southern Brooklyn. The fundamental goal of initiatives such as the Community Wellness 2000 initiative is the provision of preventive and integrated healthcare services (New York City Department of Health, 2006). One of the fundamental strengths of Coney Island Hospital is its ability to provide superior clinical services to its culturally and ethnically diverse constituents. In its advertisement, the hospital emphasizes its excellent departments and specialty areas. These areas include Adolescent Medicine, Urology, Cardiology and Cardiac and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Additionally, Coney Island Hospital prides itself in the fact that it has worked arduously to expand its Women's Health services to include a multi-disciplinary Osteoporosis Program which is built around the concept of preventative medicine. Another area of improvement within the hospital is the improved level of services provided by the Breast Health Center. Through its utility of state of the art technology, the hospital has strategically positioned itself as one of the leading facilities for breast disease detection and management (New York State Department of Health, 2006). One of the most distinguishing features of Coney Island Hospital is its recently-formed community-based alliance with practitioner within the private sector. This alliance as embodied in the "Partners In Private Practice" program has experienced phenomenal growth and in a relatively short period of time, it has grown to include six medical offices that provide both primary care and specialty services. These offices are truly a part of the ethnic and cultural diversity Coney Island Hospital caters to in that the offices are specifically designed to serve the Russian, Pakistani and Chinese communities (New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation, 2006). The specialty services offered by Coney Island Hospital serve as the main distinguishing features. Its specialty services include Adolescent Medicine, Adult Primary Care, Ambulatory Services, Breast Health Center, Cardio-Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center and multicultural services. The Adolescent Medicine Program proves dedicated services to young people between the ages of 12 and 21. The services offered to the young people serviced by this program includes preventive and curative services for sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, weight/nutritional management, scoliosis as well as vision, hearing and psychological assessments and social services. The ambulatory surgery department of Coney Island Hospital is one of the highest rated in the tri-state area. It boasts modernized pre-test and registration areas as well as a state

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Diversification in a porfolio Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Diversification in a porfolio - Research Paper Example Graham (2010) observes that the risks of an investment are reduced to between 80-90% through diversification of portfolios. However, there have been questions as to whether portfolio diversification is the best way to increase returns of an investment and to yield higher returns. Some studies have shown that portfolio diversification only reduces non market risks when the diversification is done up to a certain degree. According to Hagin (2004), even though portfolio diversification reduces non market risks and increases the returns of an investment, the rule of diminishing returns usually applies at a very early stage of the investment. This paper therefore tries to answer the question as to whether diversification of portfolios with aggressive and defensive risks profiles the best way to invest. In order to answer the main question of the paper, the paper reviews the various aspects or factors that are involved in an investment and determines how they correlate with diversification and returns. Portfolio can be broadly defined as a collection of various financial assets that are owned and managed by an individual investor or a group. According to Hagin (2004), portfolio refers to combination of different investments assets that are mixed with the aim or purpose of achieving the goals of an investor or a group of investors in any given market and region. Some of the financial assets include equities, liquid assets, fixed income instruments, bonds as well as cash. The kind of portfolio an investor chooses strongly determines the risks and returns associated with that particular investment. Diversification of portfolios on the other hand refers to an investment strategy that involves mixing of various assets in order to reduce the risks of an investment portfolio. This is through the spreading out of the risks that are associated with each investment assets to ensure that when a financial crisis occurs or affects one asset, the other

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Critical Thinking Discussion and Summary Essay Example for Free

Critical Thinking Discussion and Summary Essay I dont know if there is a universal correct definition of critical thinking. I think this a very individualistic tool used by humans to break down different problems and situations and the best way to go about coming up with the best resolution in a non-biased manner. Gathering a thought process that is reasonable and with demeanor. This is simply how I would personally define critical thinking. Thinking things over more than once, second guessing yourself here and there, seeing things from multiple perspectives, and most importantly thinking if your thoughts would be different from the other side of an argument or situation. I think critical thinking is important for us to fully understand ourselves and our situations as well as others and their situations. Critical thinking is considering multiple angles and viewpoints and trying to understand them and where they come from, as well as why they exist. In my life personally, critical thinking has always been something I would like to think Ive had due to being raised in a very diverse atmosphere and a very diverse community. Ive seen racism towards more than one race, Ive seen both sides of different biases, and I have lived in a small town closed minded community as well as the middle of a large densely populated city. It makes you think differently than most around you. It seems like you feel differently than most around you. There isnt much that surprises you so there arent many situations that you are uncomfortable in. You think before you act, you think before you speak, and you take time and consideration to realize the type of environment you are in and the people you are surrounded by. Things like this dont go through every young persons mind before acting or speaking. You slow down, you react calmer, and you try not to get too high or too low. From this course I dont think Im looking for how to think critically as much as why some of us do think critically and some of us dont. I think Im looking for more reasoning for the differential than a definition of critical thinking.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

MacDonalds The Princess and the Goblin Essays -- MacDonald Princess G

MacDonald's The Princess and the Goblin The Princess and the Goblin is a story about self-realisation and the expansion of limits. The princess, Irene, is able to come to certain conclusions about herself with the help of her grandmother, who lives in the attic upstairs in the palace. The grandmother guides Irene through her rite of passage into adulthood, and helps to bring the princess and Curdie together in the end. However, the reader never really knows whether the grandmother even exists, and it is this uncertainty that causes the reader to question whether she is a personification of a force within Irene that is driving her to achieve all that she does. There are many elements of fairy tales that exist within the grandmother's world and Irene's relationship with her grandmother and her nurse, Lootie. Archetypes such as the attic, birds, the moon, and fire exist within her grandmother's world and archetypes such as the underground exist within the world she guides Irene through. The grandmother embodies characteristic s of the good witch with supernatural powers, who guides Irene on her journey, while Lootie embodies characteristics of a wicked witch, who hinders her right of passage into adulthood. Irene's first encounter with her grandmother is one of ambivalence, which parallels the stage of puberty she is in. This is the stage of her journey when she is not sure how far from the safety of her mother figure, the nurse, she should wander. Irene does not stay very long with her grandmother, as she is not fully ready to leave childhood. There are elements of Charles Perrault's Little Red Riding Hood and The Sleeping Beauty in the Wood in Irene's first visit with her grandmother. Her discovery of the grandmother is very... ...hat exist in this story follow the fairy tale tradition. The princess is transformed into a young woman with the aid of a helper. This helper is her grandmother, who gives her the tools to cut the invisible thread, and be led by her own powers. The princess discovers another world beyond her nursery and the walls of the palace that becomes more and more real every time she lets go of someone's hand. Bibliography MacDonald, George. The Princess and the Goblin. London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1996 Perrault, Charles. "Little Red Riding Hood." in Folk & Fairy Tales. Eds. Martin Hallett and Barbara Karasek. 2nd edition. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press Ltd., 1996. 25-27. Perrault, Charles. "The Sleeping Beauty in the Wood." in Folk & Fairy Tales. Eds. Martin Hallett and Barbara Karasek. 2nd edition. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press Ltd., 1996. 40-48.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Orphans in the Literature of J.K. Rowling

Etta Priest 15 December 2009 Major Literary Figures Orphans in Rowling's Harry Potter Series An orphan is a child permanently bereaved of his or her parents through death. UNICEF reports that there are between one hundred and forty-three million and two hundred and ten million orphans worldwide and, furthermore, that five thousand seven-hundred and sixty minors become parentless daily. With the gargantuan quantity of bereft children, it is no surprise that literary protagonists are frequently orphaned. From Bilbo Baggins in The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien to Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum, victims of parent loss have been molded into key characters. One of the most recent, and most famous, orphans in literature is J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter. However, in her seven book series, Rowling chose to bereave the antagonist of his parents as well, displaying an interesting line between the choices that are made that lead to good and evil. A common African proverb states that it takes a community to raise a child. The English term community originates from the Latin word communitatus, which can be divided into three essential features. Com-† is a Latin prefix that indicates togetherness. Public duties are associated with the root, â€Å"munis. † The suffix, â€Å"-tatus† refers to something little or residential. Localities in which people reside under one government with common interests are commonly known as communities. While the beings within these groups will posses differentiating qualities, a homogenous element that bonds the people toget her must exist. In the Harry Potter novels, the wizarding world is set apart from the common humans, muggles, through the ability to perform magic and the passion to understand its potential. Within the network of wizards, individual communities exist based on geographical locations, natural abilities, and a desire for improvement. Rowling emphasizes the necessity of community in order to mature repetitively. Within the school, Hogwarts, Potter experiences the bonds of brotherhood. Furthermore, he encounters relationships with fatherlike figures, as well as connections with the general public of the wizarding society. These associations are generally beneficial, especially for an orphan in adolescence; however, certain connections prove to be crooked and have ultimately negative results. She displays these negative results through Lord Voldemort and his failure to create connections with others, other than the mark he left on the one he tried to kill: â€Å" Displayed since infancy, Harry's personal sign is inscribed by the evil sorcerer Voldemort in a murderous rampage that leaves Harry's parents dead and the baby an orphan. Harry's mark permits a public sign of recognition not only of his virtuous (distinguished, abandoned) identity, but also of the burden imposed by being special† (Robertson 201). From the moment Rowling published Harry Potter and The Sorcerer's Stone, it has been clear that Harry lived in miserable conditions. Being forced to live in a cupboard, eat minimal amounts of nasty food, and put up with a spoiled brat all became normal to the boy who lost his parents at the age of one. Rowling begins almost each of her series with a strong reminder of Harry's misery and how he is still suffering from the loss of his mother and father. Contrary to the development of Harry throughout his experiences at Hogwarts, Voldemort is portrayed an evil spirit, too weak to possess his own body. By the second book readers learn his true name is Tom Marvolo Riddle, humanizing him minimally. Knowing that he once had a name suggests that he did not always have intentions of being a dark lord. Lord Voldemort's birth origins are not unraveled until the sixth book, Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince. It is interesting that Rowling paves a way to understand that this man was a child once who has made his own decisions towards the end of the series, while the readers experienced Harry's growth during each year he spent at Hogwarts. While Harry never had to opportunity to know his parents, James and Lilly, very well, his unconditional love for them is show clearly, especially in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Rowling describes Harry as having anger he had never felt in all his life when Aunt Marge cruelly criticizes his parents. While he lashes out, accidentally performs magic in the presence of muggles, and leaves the Dursley's residence, these actions were truly courageous steps for a thirteen year old boy to take, which are followed by many more throughout the course of this particular novel. Showing his growing independence, Harry buys his on school supplies and finished his homework alone in Diagon Alley. While students such as Ron have parents that help them gather essential items and encourage them to study, the Potter boy knows he owes something to his parents and desires to be the best wizard he possible can. The protagonist's desire to succeed is not met with the easiest circumstances. When Harry learns that the claimed-to-be-killer of Lilly and James is Sirius Black, a seed is planted inside of him that seem to stem from his desire for revenge. This stem grows due to his chilling encounters with dementors. His vulnerability is displayed greatly when he was the only student on the Hogwarts Express to faint in the presence of these deathly creatures. However, during extended visits with Professor Lupin, a bond is formed that is more profound that a simple student-teacher relationship. Through this connection, Lupin is able to explain why Harry was the only person to pass out on the train. The explanation was that he had seen death . Furthermore, Harry learns how Lupin was a true friend to James. The mutual honesty between them resembles the candor that Harry could unfortunately never experience with his parents. While is in inarguable orphaned, lacking privileges that most students possess, this connection with his teacher is unlike anything he has felt with an adult before. As a parent would desire to protect his or her child, Lupin agrees to teach Harry how to fight off dementors and stay strong in the presence of emotionless creatures. As he practices the anti-dementor spell, he can actually hear the voices of his mother and father. Lupin helps him to cope with the face that they are truly deceased and â€Å"listening to echoes of them won't bring them back† (Azkaban 243). Thanks to his continued meetings with Lupin, Harry gains courage in his abilities, knowledge of the Patronus Charm, and admiration of a parent-like figure. Not all of Harry's decisions are marked with maturity as Rowling reveals when Severus Snape brutally criticizes James for being â€Å"exceedingly arrogant† and going â€Å"where he wants to, with no thought of consequences† (Azkaban 394). In response, the young boy burns with â€Å"rage such as he had not felt since his last night at Privet Drive† (394). As he continues to disrespectfully shout as his despised professor, Harry's outburst only seems to give more credit to Snape's accusations. Had he maintained a level-headed and humble disposition in the face of adversity, this mark of immaturity would not be so apparent. Lupin gives Harry the advice that takes transfers his life of vicarious resentment into the man his parents would hope to see on page fourteen, â€Å"Your parents gave their lives to keep you alive, Harry. A poor way to repay them—gambling their sacrifice. † As previously mentioned, the talk of Sirius Black's return has infiltrated Harry's mind and tempted him with revenge. At this point in the novel, he has bottled up his feelings of vengeance, but how he would use them would be a test of his maturity. The long awaited encounter with Black finally takes place, and while it seemed that Harry had every intention of taking his life, he made a very wise decision by listening to his elders. Lupin and Black's explanations resonate in Harry's mind and open up yet another window into the lives of Lilly and James. Without question, every word concerning the loyalty and abilities of James gave his son a sense of pride and deep love. When faced with an opportunity to see the indisputable killer of his parents be put to death, Harry thought of what his father would do. This killer is revealed to be Peter Pettigrew. Just as Lupin and Black raise their wands to condemn him, Harry interjects, â€Å"I don't reckon my dad would've wanted them to become killers† (Azkaban 275). Not only did he protect the memory of James Potter, but he upheld the integrity of his father's dearest friends, a remarkable trait in such a young wizard. The turning point of Harry's growth takes place at the end of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, when he and Hermione travel backwards in time and save innocent lives. In â€Å"real time: Harry and Sirius were attacked by a flurry of dementors, and a patronus in stag form had barely saved the boy. Most likely due to the fact that Harry wishes for visions of his parents, he believes that his very father had cast the charm to save him. However, when he arrives on the outskirts of this scene, a realization unlike any of his discoveries thus far overtakes him. Initiative, bravery, advanced skill, and discernment combine in Harry's body within a matter seconds. In this moment, he understood that he has created the magnificent stag that saved the life of Black and pushed away the dementors. While Lupin's wisdom poured into the protagonist's development during his third year, Harry's fifth year was influenced through the many aspects of community. As the new year at Hogwarts resumes in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, headmaster Albus Dumbledore is proud to announce â€Å"a friendly competition between the three largest European Schools of wizardry: Hogwarts, Beauxbatons, and Durmstrang† which would be a â€Å"most excellent way of establishing ties between young witches and wizards of different nationalities† (Goblet 187). The Triwizard Tournament was an instrument with the capability of introducing three unique circles to each other, giving them an opportunity to reach out of their comfort zones and adopt a willingness to be accepting. Potter's close friend, Hermione Granger, was unsurprisingly excited about this event, arguing that the â€Å"tournament's supposed to be about getting to know foreign wizards and making friends with them† (Goblet 423). Her maturity contrasts Ron Weasley's point of view immensely as he looks down up the boys of Durmstrang, referring to a champion of the competition as an enemy. Because of Granger's status as an only child, readers may expect that she would be more inclined to scorn outsiders. Unfortunately, Weasley was trapped in his jealous world, and he ignored his best friends' tolerance of the other schools as well. He allowed the schools desire to host exchange students to pull apart his best friends. Ron Weasley's unfavorable treatment was not the only situation to put a damper on Potter's attitude. The knowledge that he had been so close to living with his godfather forever, then being stripped of this paternal affinity, was detrimental. Sirius Black, Potter learned at the age of fourteen, was the closest friend of his deceased parents. Growing up with cruel treatment from muggles, this would have been the boys first chance to live in one of the most intimate communities a child requires: family. As a result of Black's actions, his godson knows he is dearly loved; however, he must maintain secrecy for his own freedom and life. During most of the novel, Potter rarely communicates with his godfather through the Owl Post. As soon as Black learned of the pain in the boy's scar, he made immediate plans of paying a visit, a natural reaction any devoted parent would have. Potter displays his mutual feelings towards him in his attempt to retract his claim, hoping that this father figure would remain in hiding until they could live without being in fear of the Ministry of Magic and Lord Voldemort. Distance from loved ones breeds suffering, yet simultaneously elicits a sense of comfort. Potter had lacked this sense for almost fifteen years. Among various encounters with Cedric Diggory, Potter experienced new bonds of brotherhood, which provided him a new source of well-being. Although these two students lived in divergent houses at Hogwarts, they were coupled together as chosen participants in the Triwizard Tournament. Naturally, circumstances did not allow them to be the best of friends. The majority of their peers believed that Potter was a cheat who did not deserve to be titled a champion. Experiencing ill treatment, he still revealed insider information concerning the first task: â€Å"Cedric, the task is dragons† (Goblet 340). when Potter's intentions were questioned, he responded, â€Å"It's just fair†¦ isn't it? We all know now†¦ we're on even footing† (341). Later, Potter's morality is rewarded. Diggory returns the favor by offering his competition advice in order to proceed in the second task successfully. The younger competitor found it difficult to trust his opponent, not knowing if he would just make a further fool of himself. Potter realized that worrying about being foolish would not keep him alive. By the final and most dangerous challenge, the perspective of â€Å"every man for himself† would be expected from the contestants. This was absolutely not the case. They discovered that two people have the ability to exceed that which one person would be able to accomplish when they concurrently â€Å"stupefy† their spidery assailant. Potter proves that friendship is greater than winning by rescuing his opponent in the maze and even allowing him to simultaneously touch the trophy, which would have resulted in a tie. The outcome of this tie was nothing comparable to what Potter could have imagined. When the trophy turned out to be a magical method of transportation that hurled him into an oppressive graveyard, he witnessed the most negative form of any community, the death eaters. After Lord Voldemort's resurrection, he explained how he took the life of his own father, then summoned his â€Å"true family† (Goblet 646). ironically, his group of inconspicuous followers consisted of the very wizards who believed he vanished forever. Healthy unions do not ignore supposed love ones for years on end. Furthermore, Voldemort forces his death eaters to plead for his re-acceptance. The antagonist disregarded a â€Å"woman's foolish sacrifice† years before and ignored the greatest evidence of kinship. Lilly Potter's love for her baby protected him from the killing curse, Avada Kedavra. Without this relationship, his life would have been terminated (Goblet 297). From the beginning of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire to the end, the protagonist constantly uses discernment to learn from the various associations surrounding him. Instances exist in the first half of the novel in which Potter's immature reactions were a result of the cruelty encompassing him. For example, he cruelly mocked Mrs. Malfoy and even cursed Draco Malfoy for taunting Granger. Evidence proves that Potter developed patience and wisdom; He remained dedicated when thwarted with media claims of his â€Å"disturbed and dangerous† nature (Goblet 611). additionally, he purposely forfeited winning first place in the second task of the Triwizard Tournament in order to ensure the safety of other students. Had compassionate friendships and concerned leaders not poured into the life of the Potter boy he may never have understood the consequences of conceit and the benefits of generous ambition. Nothing could be successfully accomplished in solitary and awareness of community was imperative. Not until Rowling's sixth novel, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, is the true story of Tom Riddle, or Lord Voldemort, established. In multiple chapters, Dumbledore shows Harry a series of memories all pertaining to the history of Riddle. The pensieve explains that Merope Gaunt used her power to force the muggle Tom Riddle, Senior to fall in love with her. Sadly, he abandoned her prior to their son's birth. Gaunt dies soon after having the baby, who is sent to an orphanage where Dumbledore eventually invites him to Hogwarts. While Riddle proves to be a talented wizard, he used his acquired skills to hurt those around him. Even though Dumbledore reached out to him, his revenge was too much to handle and he murdered his own father. Perhaps because he was conceived under the influence of love potion, Voldemort never gained the ability to love or be loved. Maybe because Harry died for love, he was destined to be loved all along. However, Voldemort and Harry are more than mere consequences of fate. The role of free will in the Harry Potter series is analogous to the way human beings function according to their beliefs. Fundamentally, a higher power has knowledge of what is to come; however, it is the choices that people make that carry them to that conclusion. A specific example of this occurs when Dumbledore witnesses Trelawney's prophecy. This prediction only becomes reality because Voldemort believes the subject is Harry, causing the latter's life to be altered greatly. Voluntary decision also stems from this prophecy based on Harry's decision to fight back against his enemy. In, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, he discovers that â€Å"neither can live while the other survives† (501). Both the hero and his opponent choose to react to the prophesy based on their own beliefs and interpretation of one witch's world. The greatest difference between these two powerful orphans by the end of the series is the different applications of discernment. In a speech Rowling delivered at Harvard entitled â€Å"The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination,† she stated, â€Å"Unlike any other creature on this planet, humans can learn and understand, without having experienced. They can think themselves into other people's minds, imagine themselves into other people's places. Separated from any other creatures, humans have the capacity to discern. Harry exercise this ability frequently while Voldemort continued to do the opposite, causing his ultimate demise. Their difference in judgement is displayed through the unexpected irony that accompanies Severus Snape during the entire Potter series, and especially The Deathly Hallows. As the final novel commen ces, Snape is depicted as a ruthless Death Eater, revealing insider information to the despicable Lord Voldemort. Snape gives the Dark Lord the date that Harry Potter would be transported from the residence at Privet Drive. Rowling donates a few chapters that allow her readers to question the motives of Snape; however, in Chapter Five, this insider information is proved to be true. For the Death Eaters attack the brigade of Harry Potter look-a-likes and aurors, managing to sever hope, from the beginning, that Snape has a method to his madness. Due to this initial negative sensation that flows from this slimy character and further events throughout Rowling's seventh novel, not until after Snape's death does the irony that he represents come into the light. Throughout The Deathly Hallows, the glimpses the readers receive of Snape further display that he is a Death Eater. One moment occurs when it seems that Lord Voldemort has finally pervaded the one establishment that always upheld good: Hogwarts. Snape is becoming the school's headmaster which could only mean that it was doomed, for at this point he seems to be the right hand man of the Dark Lord. His cruelty is also displayed when he bumps into Harry Potter and Luna Lovegood in their dangerous excursion through their old school. From under the cloak of invisibility, Harry â€Å"had forgotten the details of Snape's appearance in the magnitude of his crimes, forgotten how his greasy black hair hung in curtains around his thin face, how his black eyes had a dead, cold look† (Hallows 597). His thoughts display that Snape is still as vile as he always has been with no hints of remorse or room for improvement. Ultimately, this results in the rushing of Professors Sprout and Flitwick to battle Snape, forcing him to flee. Why would he have cowardly run away from these wizards unless he was a true villain? In chapter thirty-two, â€Å"The Elder Wand,† Voldemort and Snape have their final encounter with one another. The Dark Lord concludes he must kill the latter to ensure the success of his plans of being the true master of the most powerful wand ever crafted. Therefore, Voldemort orders Nagini to bite Snape, leaving him alone to die by deadly venom. Neither of these men knew that Harry had witnessed this event from underneath his cloak of invisibility. Feeling urged to approach the dying wizard, Harry went up to Snape as he gargled out his last words, â€Å"Take †¦ it †¦ take †¦ it †¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Hallows 57). It was at this point that he realized memories were pouring out of him, not only blood. Once again the pensieve reveals new background information through the memories of other characters. In this instance, the old visions of Snape that Harry views change his perspective immediately. For the first time, the reader can understand the intricacy that Rowling crafted this character with. Therefore, â€Å"The Prince's Tale,† is a monumental turning point in the character development of not only Snape, but the protagonist and antagonist as well, for they are directly connected to this man. In this chapter, Harry visits multiple memories concerning the childhood of the deceased which all include his mother, Lilly. While Snape always seemed to have a shady persona, his attraction to Harry's mother was never cloaked. Even though he did become a Death Eater for a span of his life, it becomes apparent that the death of his childhood love leads him back into the light. â€Å"If you love Lilly Evans, if you truly loved her, then your way forward is clear† is Dumbledore's claim as Snape is suffering greatly when he learns that this childhood friend has been murdered by Voldemort (Hallows 678). More of these specific situations bring sense to everything that once seemed contradictory. It is clear that Snape had no purpose of severing George Weasley's ear, but he was truly saving Lupin's life. Also, even though he did divulge the date of Harry's departure, it was Snape's idea for his friends to drink polyjuice potion in order to divert the Death Eaters. Significantly, Harry learns that the silver doe Patronus belonged to Snape all along, therefore, it was he who led him to the Sword of Gryffindor in the Forest of Dean. The irony is that his actions all along were all caused by his love for Lily, not hatred of her son. Due to Voldemort's inability to feel love, he believed that Snape acted for the latter purpose, hatred. If Rowling's main character and his greatest rival had not been orphans, the significance of their lack of parents and influence from others would not have been as powerful. While both Potter and Voldemort gained the strength to produce such advanced magic that all fully grown wizards struggle with, they both dealt with this gift in different manners. In Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Albus Dumbledore suggests, â€Å"Curiosity is not a sin†¦ But we should exercise caution with our curiosity† (598). Through Harry, it is clear that following this advice is crucial; through Voldemort it is apparent that forsaking this advice is devastating. On the subject of orphans, Mother Teresa of Calcutta stated, â€Å" I have come to realize more and more that the greatest disease and the greatest suffering is to be unwanted, unloved, uncared for, to be shunned by everybody, to be just nobody (to no one)† (Frangsmyr 5). While the key orphans in the Potter series experienced all of these terrible feelings, their ultimate destiny lay in the way they chose to discern. Keep in mind that Harry endured with generous ambition. Works Cited â€Å"The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination | Harvard Magazine. † Harvard Alumni Magazine. N. p. , 5 June 2008. Web. 2 Dec. 2009. . Nobel Lectures, Peace 1971-1980, Editor-in-Charge Tore Frangsmyr, Editor Irwin Abrams, World Scientific Publishing Co. , Singapore, 1997. Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. New York: Scholastic Paperbacks, 2007. Print Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. New York: Scholastic Paperbacks, 2002. Print Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. New York: Scholastic Paperbacks, 2005. Print. Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. New York: Scholastic Paperbacks, 2001. Print. Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. New York: Scholastic Inc, 1997. Print. â€Å"Unite For Children. † UNICEF. N. p. , n. d. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. â€Å"What Happens to Our Wishes: Magical Thinking in Harry Potter. † Project Muse. Children's Literature Association Quarterly, n. d. Web. 14 Dec. 2009. .

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Self-Preservation Japan Territorial Ambitions

The need for self-preservation was the motivating force behind Japan’s territorial ambitions. † In my opinion,self-preservation refers to the preservation of Japan’s territories as well as the achievement of self-sufficieny(autarky). Thus, I feel that Sources B,C and D support the statement while Sources A and E do not. Source B supports the hypothesis. It states the two reasons why Japan went to war and is reliable because it is a report of the Japanese government conference held in 1941.Source B states that Japan will â€Å"seek to establish a solid basis for security and preservation of the nation†and â€Å"advance south†. This shows that Japan wanted to protect its territories like China and sought to establish its military so that it could conquer more territories for more natural resources to reduce reliance on other countries . Also, Japan needed to â€Å"establish a solid basis for security† so that it could protect itself from externa l threats. Japan felt that in order to be more powerful, it needed to conquer more territories and preserve its current territories.To Japan, power was the key to self-preservation and thus, in order to satisfy its need for self-preservation, Japan became hungry for power and this ignited Japan’s territorial ambitions. Source B also states that Japan’s main reason for expanding its territories was the â€Å"policy that resulted in the establishment of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere†. Thus, I can infer from Source B that Japan conquered other territories because it wanted to achieve self-sufficiency.From my contextual knowledge,Japan established the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere on the pretext of wanting all the economies in East Asia to prosper together. However, Japan’s main aim was to control the economies and trade and at the same time, the countries’ natural resources. By doing so, Japan was able to gain more natural resour ces for its growing industries and population as well as use the Southeast Asian countries as overseas markets for Japanese goods. Hence,I feel that Source B shows that the motivation behind Japan’s territorial ambitions was its need for self-sufficiency.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome essays

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome essays Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a series of mental and physical birth defects The manifestations of these defects are associated with a mothers ingestion of alcohol during pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome annually affects between 1.3 and 2.2 children per 1,000 live births in North America. Researchers estimate that cases of Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD) exceed those of FAS by a ratio of 2:1 to 3:1. This would indicate that women in the U.S. annually give birth to between 16,548 and 22,064 children exhibiting the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol. Alcohol use or abuse by the pregnant woman subjects her to the same range of risks that alcohol does in the general population. However, it poses extreme and unique risks to the fetus and is associated with FAS. Timing of alcohol use during pregnancy is also of importance. Alcohol use during the second trimester is more damaging than use in the third trimester. Alcohol ingested by a pregnant woman easily passes across the placental barrier to the fetus. Because of this, drinking alcohol can adversely affect the development of the baby. Research of the Effects of parental exposure to alcohol. Research on the extent and effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol is sometimes contradictory. It is done much the same way as any other medical research conducted under non-experimental conditions. It is sometimes difficult to find appropriate candidates for study. Most hospitals lack protocols for identifying pregnant women who use alcohol and/or other drugs; in addition, such protocols have limited use because people often do not admit such behavior. Toxicology assessments can result in false positives or fail to reveal alcohol or other drug uses because those substances have metabolized. Researchers frequently fail to base their prevalence estimates on samples representative of the general population. Researchers often have trouble establishing a matched control group...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Accounting for Business Combination Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Accounting for Business Combination - Essay Example The acquirer gains command over the assets and the associated liabilities. It is worthy of stating that when interchange in business takes place, it can be termed as business combination. It is significant for all the business combinations to be accounted for utilising the purchase process of accounting. Control can be gained by purchasing the assets themselves or by means of purchasing control over the corporation possessing the assets (Grant Thornton, 2011). The main objective of the paper is to discuss about accounting for business combination, to identify the current issues and thus to critically analyse them. The paper will endeavour to discuss numerous standards that can be applicable in resolving the issues related to accounting for business combination. Business Combinations One of the main goals of the business organisation is to attain growth. It is often stated by the top managements that growth or expansion is the major goal of the business organisation. A company may dev elop steadily by mounting its range of products. A number of the companies have attained their objective of growth by way of business combinations. The accounting for business combinations is primarily controlled with the help to four principles such as IFRS3, IAS 27, IAS 36 as well as IAS 38.The factor worth considering is that a business combination may be either friendly or might as well be unfriendly. When friendly combination takes place, it is the duty of the boards of directors of both the combining companies to bargain upon communally satisfying terms related to planned combinations. After that the stockholders of the combining companies need to approve the proposal. On the other hand, an unfriendly combination takes place when the board of directors of the company oppose the combination. In such cases, mostly by way of tender offer the acquiring company is capable of interacting with the individual shareholders (Qfinance, 2012). Advantages and Disadvantages of Business Comb ination There are numerous ways through which the companies may expand. A few of the companies might want to expand internally while others may choose to expand externally. An organisation may choose to expand internally by involving themselves in research and development. In case of external expansion, the companies attempt to expand through acquiring one or more companies. Along with quick expansion, there are numerous benefits of external expansion or business combination method in comparison to internal expansion (Deloitte, 2012). When the combination is vertical or horizontal, such combination with an existing company tends to present the management of the acquiring company with a business unit which is established possessing experienced personnel, productive facilities, regular suppliers as well as distribution channels. Furthermore, such business combinations assist companies to compete in an effective way in the international market. Most of the times, it is apparent that th e companies go for business combinations in order to take benefit of the income tax laws. By means of filing a consolidated tax return, the profitable corporations’ tax liability might be minimised because of the losses of unbeneficial affiliates. Diversification occurring from such combinations provides the combining companies with numerous benefits such as greater flexibility, an internal capital market, rise in the debt capacity of the company, greater shield from the rivals over proprietary information, and at times capability to make better use of the organisational resources (PwC, 2012). In spite of its innumerable benefits, business combinat

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Why was stable democracy so late in coming to Germany Essay - 1

Why was stable democracy so late in coming to Germany - Essay Example Such fights have often bore fruit with the result of a greater freedom to the masses of a nation and the distribution of power into a wider pool. Stable democracy has been often defined as one that is able to endure over a large period of time. Some commentators put this at twenty-five years while others prescribe other amounts of time to qualify a democracy as a stable one. This however leads one to the question of whether one may be able to call a democracy a stable one if it meets the condition of durability but is closer in its sensibilities to an authoritarian regime. This has caused the rise of other views as to what constitutes a stable democracy, such as the state’s ability to pacify its citizens and provide them with an incentive for the continuation of the regime (Mundt, 2010). This makes it A major reason to which the success of democratic regimes all over the world has been ascribed is the rise of nationalism, which in turn, was a consequence of the rise of the bourgeoisie. The rise of the bourgeoisie led to an increase in trade and commerce which in turn flourished because of the colonial expansions that took place during the nineteenth century (it had been happening for a very long time by then, but it reached a crescendo with the onset of the Industrial Revolution). The increase in the importance of industry as a means of producing wealth required the importance to shift from land, which was the case till then. The rise of the bourgeoisie led to the commencement of many revolutions in different parts of Europe that took inspiration from the French Revolution of 1789 (Hobsbawm, 2008). These revolutions accelerated the onset of democracy in many countries, since most of them were based on ideologies that promoted egalitarianism. Following these revolutions, aristocra cy died a slow death in most of the countries that they occurred. This was the beginning of a process of transition that