Saturday, January 25, 2020

Main Features Of British Conservatism

Main Features Of British Conservatism The ideology of conservatism is seen as one of the most important structural components of modern political ideologies. However, there are great difficulties in determining its substantive content. The term conservative comes from the Latin conserve to maintain, protect. However, its ideological and political importance can be hardly identified, which is associated with a number of circumstances. Firstly, in the process of development an inversion of historical values of liberalism and conservatism has occurred. Thus, many fundamental principles of classical liberalism the demand for freedom of the market and limiting government intervention are now seen as conservative. At the same time the idea of a strong central governing power of the state, launched earlier by traditionalist conservatives, now became an essential component of a liberal mind. Secondly, there is the internal heterogeneity of the political ideology of conservatism, which includes various aspects, but is gathered by one common feature the justification and stabilization of established social structures. Bearers of the ideology of conservatism are the social groups, strata and classes who are interested in preserving the traditional social order, or in its recovery. There are two ideological formations in the structure of conservatism. One focuses on the sustainability of the social structure in its unaltered form, the other one addresses the opposing political forces and trends. In this context, conservatism is both political ideology justifying the existing order, and appeal to the lost. Different directions and forms of conservatism exhibit common features. These include: recognition of the existence of universal moral and religious order and the imperfection of human nature, belief in the innate inequality of men and the limited possibilities of the human mind, the conviction of the need for a rigid social and class hierarchy and preferences of established social structures and institut ions. British conservatism is perceived by many people as a British national trait, inseparable from everything English. Conservatism, which got here its highest expression and perfection, is a traditional political ideology of the British. It is with the English Parliament originated the famous distinction between right and left, and many other political definitions (Clarke 1996). British conservatism, which understands that human nature is not perfect enough for perfect political institutions, is implemented in the following fundamental approaches: Preference of gradual changes to the radical. Preference of specific and nearby to the distant and utopian. Mentality of conservatism is the mentality of traditionalism. Conservatism is characterized by a certain conception of man, society, state, and history. Conservative thinking may be regarded as an ideology of right-wing forces in society, expressing their desire to preserve the existing social organization. But not this aspect is important. It is important that the proletariat has nothing to lose but their chains, right and conservative members of society have much to preserve, develop and grow. Conservatism can be considered independently of the material and economic interests as an ideology consisting of certain basic principles and concepts of human, state, society and history. For example, the answer to the question What makes the freedom of each person and the real political freedom in society and state? inevitably leads us to understanding of the better role of conservative unchanging institutions like the state, family, law, religion, against the backdrop of progressive attempt to rebuild and destroy for extreme individualistic self. Traditional conservatism is associated with the names of E. Burke (1729-1797), J. de Maistre (1753-1821) and Louis de Bonald (1754-1840). In the 20th century, the main forerunner of this trend was R. Kirk, who published in 1953 book The Conservative Mind. Homeland of conservatism as a political ideology, which was a specific reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, was England. In 1790 E. Burke published a book Reflections on the Revolution in France. Louis de Bonald and J. de Maistre are considered to be original classics of feudal aristocratic conservatism. E. Burke, son of modest Irish lawyer, is characterized by ambivalence and inconsistency of the feudal-aristocratic and bourgeois system components of his political views. Precisely because of inconsistencies and discrepancies, many of Burkes ideas can be interpreted very widely and in different contexts, and find support of the wider social groups (Coxall & Robins 2003). Political ideology of the British conservatism includes many of the categories developed by these thinkers. One of the most important in it is the concept of natural aristocracy, which includes, according to Burke, not only the nobles, but also rich businessmen, educated people, lawyers, scientists and artists. Wealth on the grounds of reason and policy deserves a privileged position in society. Otherwise, recurrence of the revolution is possible. One of the main features of the British conservatism is the concept of traditionalism. In contrast to the ideas of the Enlightenment, tradition is opposed to reason and put over it, because it means the subordination of action under the natural course of things and the age-old wisdom. Traditionalism is the basis of understanding the change, update, reform, which should not violate the natural course of things. At the same time two main types of reforms are distinguished: reforms aimed at restoring the traditional rights and principles, and preventive reforms aimed at preventing revolution. At the same time there is seen the difference between change and reform. Changes alter the essence of the object; the reform doesnt affect it and is forced as a tool that must be applied. Joseph de Maistre and Louis de Bonald, rejecting the republic, any reform and contrasting it to tradition and prestige, saw the path to salvation in strengthening the political role of religion. The core of the po litical ideas of de Maistre was the idea of equilibrium, understood as the creation of the strategic balance in the political and spiritual life based on a theocratic approach. De Bonald, without giving priority to either secular or religious authorities, launched the idea of an alliance of religious and political society (Clarke 1996). In general, the political idea of traditionalism includes organic conception of society, according to which it has been originally there, like organic nature, and does not arise as a result of social evolution: the interpretation of the participation of the individual as presenting no intrinsic value, but entirely dependent on the support of the conservative order; the idea of elitism and antidemocratism, according to which inequality among people is an axiom of politics, because equality is the enemy of freedom (Burke), freedom for the highborn and propertied; rejection of the idea of progress and contrasting it to the ideas of the historical cycle (Mitternih). In the 20th century, R. Kirk, developing the principles of traditionalism, wrote that in the revolutionary era people were fascinated by novelty, but then they got tired of it and wanted the old principles back. History is interpreted as a cyclical process. Therefore, at a certain turn the conservative order comes back again. Conservatives seek to ensure a broad national consensus, appealing to the traditional views and prejudices, authority and religion. Social and economic problems they rarely transfer into a religious-ethical plane. Thus, in the 80ies, R. Kirk has emphasized the following principles of traditionalist conservatism: the belief in the order of a higher level than the human ability to adapt, and the belief that the economy goes into politics, politics into ethics, and ethics into religious concepts. Another basic feature of the British conservatism lies in understanding that individual is foolish. The crowd is stupid, when acting without thinking, but the human race is always wise, and when it has enough time, he is always doing the right thing. The experience of many generations is embodied in the mores, customs and traditions. So, we must take care of this heritage: instead of getting rid of all old prejudices, we must consider them. It is dangerous to allow people to live and act with the support of just own stock of mind, because this stock of the individual is small, it is better to turn to a universal bank of knowledge accumulated for centuries by many peoples. The older the existing institution is, the more respect it deserves, as it has passed the hardest test the test of time, and absorbed the wisdom of the ancestors (Coxall & Robins 2003). Confrontation between parliamentary factions gives the necessary guarantee to preservation of the state system of Britain. Party unities, regardless of what goals they pursue in their work, are an integral part of a free state. British people by Burkes mouth gave the classic definition of a political party a group of people united by a particular, shared by everyone principles for national interests. But not only inter-party contradictions define the development of the state. Rivalry between different branches of government, each of which wished to expand its influence but is forced to reckon with other similar encroachments, provides a dynamic equilibrium for the state, and the inviolability of the rights and privileges for citizens. This balance of opposing aspirations lies at the basis of the English political system. Although the three highest state authority in Britain are of different nature the monarchy (the Crown), aristocratic (the Lords) and democratic (House of Commons) together despite their differences, are harmoniously integrated. English conservatism also recognizes divergence of interests between different social strata, in particular, stressing that income inequality is the most effective incentive to work, without which the existence of civilization is impossible. According to the conservative views the problem of poverty can be solved only gradually, with the development of production. Conservatism believes the contradictions are an inherent element of social life and art of politics is to achieve such an optimal combination of strengths and weaknesses, where even weaknesses would serve to the benefit of society. Conservatism of Great Britain denies the possibility of the existence of political organization, same suitable for all ages and nations (Clarke 1996). Institutions of each state are the result of long historical development and adaptation to national circumstances, traditions and customs of the country. Every age has its own customs, and policies are determined by them. During the conflict of Britain with its American colonies, the Conservatives called on to carry out in each of the parts of the empire management according to the nature and circumstances of local people. They believed that the government was something purely practical, designed to benefit of people rather than to ensure compliance with the schemes of politicians. Among the most serious crimes of Lord Hastings and the entire administration of the East India Company conservatives attributed assault on centuries-old way of life of local people. If you manage the inhabitants of another country, you must do it according to their norms and principles, rather than forcing them to adapt other peoples ideas. Together with the respect for the historically formed institutions British conservatism does not reject the possibility of reforming them. Life goes on, and in the new circumstances the old institutions may lose their original significance and become a hindrance to the normal functioning of the public body. In this case, even the most advanced age does not justify their preservation in old form (Coxall & Robins 2003). However, any transformation, according to conservatives, must be partial and purely pragmatic. Reform is never a change of the essence or the common device of the subject. It is nothing more than a pill directed specifically against harassing malady. In other words, here the dominant principle for conservatism is also continuity and respect for the existing realities.

Friday, January 17, 2020

The “Now” Wedding Final Project

Running Head: WOW Wedding Final Project The â€Å"NOW† Wedding Final Project by A Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements of MGMT505 Project Management Fundamentals November 2008 The â€Å"NOW† Wedding Lauren and Conner announced on December 31st that they were going to be married on January 21st. Conner had been notified that he was being deployed with the National Guard on January 30th. Lauren and Conner wanted to have a week for a honeymoon before the deployment. Lauren wanted to have a spectacular wedding and accomplish everything that needed to be accomplished so that everyone could attend and everything would be perfect.There was a tremendous amount of planning, organizing and tasks that needed to be accomplished for the â€Å"NOW† wedding to take place on time, in budget and for it to be perfectly memorable for everyone, especially Lauren and Conner. For Lauren to have the wedding that she dreamed of there were numerous tasks that needed to be accomplished immediately. The first task that needed to be accomplished was to secure the church and reception hall, until the address of the wedding is determined and secured the invitations could not be sent out.The invitations needed to be sent out a week before the couple decided to have the wedding to make sure that everyone could be there, however that was not an option. Dresses had to be made and altered as well as securing the wedding decorations, caterer and wedding party members. The major constraint the wedding couple faced was the time constraint, trying to pull all of the elements together in order to create the perfect wedding would have been difficult at best. The critical path is very tight and there could be no room for mistakes, misunderstandings, or delays.The resources required for this project were mainly people and money. The more people helping to bring all the elements together, the quicker everything could get done. The financial resources, controlled by the brides father, were necessary to move up the processing time especially where the brides dress was concerned. Figure 1. 1 utilizes a Gantt Chart to show the timeframe of the project to include sequencing of sub tasks: Fig 1. 1 [pic] The costs associated with the project are as follows: [pic] This risks for the budget are the following items:Maid of Honor Travel$1000. 00 Airfrieght 20. 00 Seamstress 240. 00 Invitation Incentive 20. 00 Invitations Help 40. 00 Possible Budget Overruns$1320. 00 The following fishbone diagram details all the current risks for the project: [pic] The method of tracking the progress of the â€Å"NOW† Wedding will be the Stop Light Chart, it is a very simple method of tracking what has been completed and what has yet to be started. Following is the Stop Light Chart which would be used at the beginning of the project: [pic] The â€Å"NOW† Wedding Case Study QuestionsPart A [pic] Creating the wedding schedule as outlined in the text it sh ows that the planning for the wedding should have occurred at least a month before it did. We would reduce the time it takes of the mother of the bride to put together the guest list by utilizing all available resources (manning) having all attendants present to create the list and a comprehensive address list (thereby minimizing the risk of one person having all this information). Invitations must be ordered on the 2nd of January with the guest list completed on the 1st.While the invitations are at print, the dresses would be designed on the 3rd with the materials being ordered immediately. The creation of a work flow chart would list out all of the tasks that must be completed assigning individual tasks to individual members of the wedding party. The budget needs to be set immediately and using the budget form above the wedding party has created the master list of objectives and goals. Utilizing the stop light will keep the project on track with constant updates as to the progress on each item.The Maid of Honor needs to be brought in immediately to participate in the planning and execution and to have measurements taken on sight to avoid the risk of the dresses not being made correctly. Part B There would be no conflict caused by the Chairman of the Vestry Committee not reducing the notice period from 14 to 7 days and I would not have recommended using the extra funds to reduce the notice period as the requirement for 14 days notice has been met by depositing the funds to secure the room on the 1st of January. Since the Wedding is scheduled for the 21st of January, there is no need to reduce the notice period.If the project were started on January 1, the Mother getting the flu would not have impacted the guest list completion as it would have been completed by January 2. Since this is the first stage of the entire project, the suggestions would have been made that the mother, bride and all of the attendants get together the night of the 1st and make a comple te list. It is not until this list is completed that any plans can be made including ordering the invitations, cakes, catering, etc†¦ Since the invitations would have been ordered on the 2nd of January, the Bride would have had an xtra few days in the delivery of the invitations. The extra day for print would be compensated for by reducing the addressing phase and rather than asking for paid part-time help, there would be another get together on the night of the 9th to get all of the invitations addressed thereby reducing the number of days down to one. When the material and lace were lost in transit then the recommendation would be to have the Bride cancel the order, receive the funds back from the lost order and take all bridesmaids and Maid of Honor to a local bridal store and purchase dresses.With a three day shipping time on dresses there would still be time to have fittings and alterations done. The lace can be replaced locally and fitted while waiting for the dresses to be delivered. ———————– Gantt Chart Invitations Guest List Budget Maid of Honor Location Dresses Well Defined Budget Responsible Party Complete list created Created ASAP Ordered Promptly Addressed & Mailed Design Pattern Ordered & Delivered Secure in Advance Address for Invitations Travel Arrangements Long Distance Dress

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Common Book of Baby and Child Care

Dr. Benjamin Spocks revolutionary book about how to raise children was first published on July 14, 1946. The book, The Common Book of Baby and Child Care, completely changed how children were raised in the latter half of the 20th century and  have become one of the best-selling non-fiction books of all time. Dr. Spock Learns About Children Dr. Benjamin Spock (1903-1998) first began learning about children as he grew up, helping take care of his five younger siblings. Spock earned his medical degree at Columbia Universitys College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1924 and focused on pediatrics. However, Spock thought he could help children even more if he understood psychology, so he spent six years studying at the New York Psychoanalytic Institute. Spock spent many years working as a pediatrician but had to give up his private practice in 1944 when he joined the U.S. Naval Reserve. After the war, Spock decided on a teaching career, eventually working for the Mayo Clinic and teaching at such schools as the University of Minnesota, the University of Pittsburgh, and Case Western Reserve. Dr. Spocks Book With the aid of his wife, Jane, Spock spent several years writing his first and most famous book, The Common Book of Baby and Child Care. The fact that Spock wrote in a congenial manner and included humor made his revolutionary changes to childcare easier to accept. Spock advocated that fathers should play an active role in raising their children and that parents will not spoil their baby if they pick him up when he cries. Also revolutionary was that Spock thought that parenting could be enjoyable, that each parent could have a special and loving bond with their children, that some mothers could get the blue feeling (postpartum depression), and that parents should trust their instincts. The first edition of the book, especially the paperback version, was a big seller right from the start. Since that first 25-cent copy in 1946, the book has been repeatedly revised and republished. So far, Dr. Spocks book has been translated into 42 languages and sold more than 50 million copies. Dr. Spock did write several other books, but his The Common Book of Baby and Child Care remains his most popular. Revolutionary What seems ordinary, normal advice now was completely revolutionary at the time. Before Dr. Spocks book, parents were told to keep their babies on a strict schedule, so strict that if a baby was crying before its prescribed feeding time that parents should let the baby continue crying. Parents were not allowed to give in to the childs whims. Parents were also instructed not to coddle, or show too much love, to their babies for that would spoil them and make them weak.  If parents were uncomfortable with the rules, they were told that doctors know best and thus they should follow these instructions anyway. Dr. Spock said just the opposite. He told them that babies dont need such strict schedules, that it is okay to feed babies if they are hungry outside the prescribed eating times, and that parents should  show their babies love. And if anything seemed difficult or uncertain, then parents should follow their instincts. New parents in the post-World War II era readily embraced these changes to parenting and raised the entire baby boom generation with these new tenets. Controversy There are some that blame Dr. Spock for the unruly, anti-government youth of the 1960s, believing that it was Dr. Spocks new, softer approach to parenting that was responsible for that wild generation. Other recommendations in the earlier editions of the book have been debunked, such as putting your babies to sleep on their stomachs. We now know that this causes a greater incidence of SIDS. Anything so revolutionary will have its detractors and anything written seven decades ago will need to be amended, but that does not deflate the importance of Dr. Spocks book. It is not an overstatement to say that Dr. Spocks book completely changed the way parents raised their babies and their children.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

The Battle Of The Second Amendment - 853 Words

Americans love guns, we love our second amendment rights and we strongly oppose those who try and take them away. Guns provide significant help for individual protection, but we need to stop handing them out guns like there is a war. The second amendment was implemented when we were still worried about the British taking us over, that is why Americans were allowed to have a gun, in case we need to call up the militia, but those days are over. Horrendous policies and politicians looking out for themselves, taking donation from weapons companies has lead to America having an extremely high gun crime rate. American’s have an abundance of gun related issues due to inadequate restrictions, insufficient political support, and the media’s influence. A change needs to be made in the form of restrictions, and new policies to better our society. During the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, the main purpose of owning a gun was for protection. These were days when we had the Wild West and life was chaotic. When there was no police or other forms of protection for the people, but as a society we have evolved so did our protection. We now have a police force and there are few debates between people’s stake in land. Also, we do not duel for honor anymore;there is no need for guns in our modern society. I watched the film Bowling for Columbine where the director Michael Moore looked into exploring popular explanations as to why American gun violence is so highShow MoreRelatedGun Control Of The United States Essay1479 Words   |  6 Pages The Second Amendment, written in 1791, firearm control is a transcendent divisive matter in cutting edge American society.From one perspective, gunfire attests an unfaltering, each day toll of American lives, from suicide and accidents impressively more than from unpleasant wrongdoing.Consistently, a mass executioner, as often as possible furnished with one or more self-loader military-sort snare weapons, chops down twelve or so setbacks. On the other hand, weapon proprietorship is an insideRead MoreThe Battle Between Gun Control and Gun Rights Essay1113 Words   |  5 Pagesright to bear arms according to the Second Amendment has been a hotly contested issue for many years in American history. The matter has been one of the most controversial issues in the second half of the twentieth century and into the twenty-first; disputed between politicians on the liberal and conservative side along with issues such as abortion, capital punishment, and gay marriage. The Supreme Court has o fficially defined the controversial Second Amendment by stating that states have the rightRead MoreGun Control Must Reduce Violent Crime860 Words   |  4 Pagesof firearms. Under the Second Amendment, our Founding fathers clearly stated that all American citizens have a constitutional right to own guns to defend their property and themselves. It is the right given to us by the Constitutional law, the right we have as American citizens to carry a firearms for personal protection. We have always been proud of our country and the rights appointed to us as citizens. 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This battle of gun control isn’t an emerging one, it has been present ever since the signing of the declaration of independence. If there is one thing that the American people hold dear it is the rights inherently granted them by the constitution and any attempt of infringement on these rights is sure to cause an immediate and considerable uproar. Ultimately the debate of gun control all started with the second amendment to our constitution. And so the amendment reads, â€Å"A well